Verb

क्रिया

कार्य का होना या प्रगति पर होना क्रिया कहलाती हैं।

The verb is a word that tells about the action being done by the person, and animal.

 

Example:

·         He writes.

·         She works.

The words like writes, works are action words, as they tell the action being done by the noun, hence these are called verbs.

A verb tells us –

·         व्यक्ति या वस्तु की स्थिति (What a person or thing is);

1.      This pen is useless.

2.      He feels sorry.

·         व्यक्ति या वस्तु के साथ क्या हो रहा हैं (What is done to a person or thing);

1.      The stick is broken.

2.      Food is eaten.

·         व्यक्ति या वस्तु क्या कर रहे हैं (What a person or thing does);

1.      He writes.

2.      Navendu plays.

 

Type of Verbs (क्रिया के प्रकार)

क्रिया के साथ कर्म के प्रयोग के आधार पर क्रिया के दो प्रकार होते हैं।

1.      Transitive verb (सकर्मक क्रिया)

2.      Intransitive verb (अकर्मक क्रिया)

1.      Transitive verb (सकर्मक क्रिया)  –  सकर्मक क्रिया वह हैं, जिसमें क्रिया कर्ता द्वारा कर्म पर स्थानान्तरित होती हैं, अर्थात् क्रिया का प्रभाव कर्म पर पड़ता हैं। ऐसी क्रियाओं के बाद हमेशा कर्म का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

i.        Beat, contain, enjoy, hit, need तथा kick आदि क्रियाओं के बाद हमेशा कर्म प्रयोग में लाया जाता हैं।

Example:

·         झंकार खाना खा रहा हैं।

Jhankar is eating food.

उपरोक्त वाक्य में क्रिया ‘खा र‍हा हैं’ का प्रभाव ‘खाना (भोजन)’ पर पड़ रहा हैं, अतः क्रिया ‘खा रहा हैं’ सकर्मक क्रिया हैं।

ii.      कुछ क्रियाओं, जैसे – give, ask, offer, promise, tell के साथ दो कर्म प्रयोग में लिये जाते हैं, इन्हें द्विकर्मक क्रिया कहते हैं।

Example:

·         मैंने नवेन्दु को एक रुपया दिया।

I gave Navendu a rupee.

उपरोक्त वाक्य में क्रिया ‘दिया’ के दो कर्म ‘नवेन्दु’ तथा ‘एक रुपया’ हैं। क्रिया का प्रत्यक्ष प्रभाव कर्म ‘एक रुपया’ पर पड़ता हैं, अतः यह प्रत्यक्ष कर्म (direct object) कहलाता हैं, जबकि क्रिया का अप्रत्यक्ष प्रभाव कर्म ‘नवेन्दु’ पर पड़ता हैं, अतः यह अप्रत्यक्ष कर्म (indirect object) कहलाता हैं।

 

2.      Intransitive verb (अकर्मक क्रिया)  – अकर्मक क्रिया वह हैं, जिसमें क्रिया कर्ता द्वारा कर्म पर स्थानान्तरित नही होती हैं, अर्थात् क्रिया का प्रभाव कर्म पर नही पड़ता हैं। ऐसी क्रियाओं के बाद कर्म का प्रयोग नही किया जाता हैं। ये क्रियायें केवल क्रिया (action), दशा (state), अवस्था (being) को ही दर्शाती हैं।

i.        Come, go, fall, die, sleep, तथा lie आदि क्रियाओं के बाद कर्म का प्रयोग नही किया जाता हैं।

Example:

·         झंकार ने लम्बी दौड़ लगाई।

Jhankar ran a long distance.                                       (Action)

·         झंकार सो रहा हैं।

Jhankar is sleeping.                                                      (State)

·         एक दुर्धटना में राम की नजर चली गई।

Ram has lost his sight in an accident.                       (Being)

 

The different forms of the verbs are:

(a) 1st form (Also called present tense)

(b) 2nd form (Past tense)

(c) 3rd form (Deep past tense)

(d) Present participle

 

Forms of the verbs:

1st form

( present tense)

2nd form

( Past tense)

3rd form

(Deep past tense)

Present participle

Abuse

Abused

Abused

Abusing

Act

Acted

Acted

Acting

Advise

Advised

Advised

Advising

Agree

Agreed

Agreed

Agreeing

Appear

Appeared

Appeared

Appearing

Arise

Arose

Arisen

Arising

Arrange

Arranged

Arranged

Arranging

Attack

Attacked

Attacked

Attacking

Bear

Bore

Born

Bearing

Beat

Beat

Beaten

Beating

Become

Became

Became

Becoming

Beg

Begged

Begged

Begging

Begin

Began

Begun

Beginning

Believe

Believed

Believed

Believing

Bleed

Bled

Bled

Bleeding

Blow

Blew

Blown

Blowing

Borrow

Borrowed

Borrowed

Borrowing

Bring

Brought

Brought

Bringing

Bring

Brought

Brought

Bringing

Build

Built

Built

Building

Buy

Bought

Bought

Buying

Call

Called

Called

Calling

Carry

Carried

Carried

Carrying

Catch

Caught

Caught

Catching

Change

Changed

Changed

Changing

Choose

Chose

Chosen

Choosing

Climb

Climbed

Climbed

Climbing

Collect

Collected

Collected

Collecting

Come

Came

Come

Coming

Cook

Cooked

Cooked

Cooking

Cut

Cut

Cut

Cutting

Dare

Dared

Dared

Daring

Decorate

Decorated

Decorated

Decorating

Defeat

Defeated

Defeated

Defeating

Die

Died

Died

Dying

Dig

Dug

Dug

Digging

Do

Did

Done

Doing

Draw

Drew

Drawn

Drawing

Dream

Dreamt

Dreamt

Dreaming

Drink

Drank

Drunk

Drinking

Drive

Drove

Driven

Driving

Earn

Earned

Earned

Earning

Eat

Ate

Eaten

Eating

Enjoy

Enjoyed

Enjoyed

Enjoying

Enter

Entered

Entered

Entering

Entertain

Entertained

Entertained

Entertaining

Explain

Explained

Explained

Explaining

Face

Faced

Faced

Facing

Fall

Fell

Fallen

Falling

Fill

Filled

Filled

Filling

Find

Found

Found

Finding

Finish

Finished

Finished

Finishing

Float

Floated

Floated

Floating

Fly

Flew

Flown

Flying

Get

Got

Got

Getting

Give

Gave

Given

Giving

Go

Went

Gone

Going

Grant

Granted

Granted

Granting

Grow

Grew

Grown

Growing

Happen

Happened

Happened

Happening

Has/Have

Had

Had

Having

Hate

Hated

Hated

Hating

Hear

Heard

Heard

Hearing

Hide

Hid

Hidden

hiding

Hit

Hit

Hit

Hitting

Hunt

Hunted

Hunted

Hunting

Hurt

Hurt

Hurt

Hurting

Injure

Injured

Injured

Injuring

Invite

Invited

Invited

Inviting

Issue

Issued

Issued

Issuing

Join

Joined

Joined

Joining

Jump

Jumped

Jumped

Jumping

Keep

Kept

Kept

Keeping

Kick

Kicked

Kicked

Kicking

Kill

Killed

Killed

Killing

Know

Knew

Known

Knowing

Land

Lent

Lent

Lending

Lay

Laid

Laid

Laying

Learn

Learnt

Learnt

Learning

Leave

Left

Left

Leaving

Look

Looked

Looked

Looking

Lose

Lost

Lost

Losing

Make

Made

Made

Making

Meet

Met

Met

Meeting

Melt

Melted

Melted

Melting

Miss

Missed

Missed

Missing

Move

Moved

Moved

Moving

Need

Needed

Needed

Needing

Notice

Noticed

Noticed

Noticing

Obey

Obeyed

Obeyed

Obeying

Open

Opened

Opened

Opening

Oppose

Opposed

Opposed

Opposing

Pay

Paid

Paid

Paying

Plant

Planted

Planted

Planting

Play

Played

Played

Playing

Please

Pleased

Pleased

Pleasing

Pray

Prayed

Prayed

Praying

Promise

Promised

Promised

Promising

Push

Pushed

Pushed

Pushing

Quarrel

Quarreled

Quarreled

Quarrelling

Rain

Rained

Rained

Raining

Reach

Reached

Reached

Reaching

Read

Read

Read

Reading

Receive

Received

Received

Receiving

Refuse

Refused

Refused

Refusing

Request

Requested

Requested

Requesting

Resign

Resigned

Resigned

Resigning

Run

Ran

Run

Running

Save

Saved

Saved

Saving

Say

Said

Said

Saying

See

Saw

Seen

Seeing

Shake

Shook

Shaken

Shaking

Shoot

Shot

Shot

Shooting

Show

Showed

Shown

Showing

Sit

Sat

Sat

Sitting

Sleep

Slept

Slept

Sleeping

Spend

Spent

Spent

Spending

Sweep

Swept

Swept

Sweeping

Swim

Swam

Swum

Swimming

Swing

Swung

Swung

Swinging

Take

Took

Taken

Taking

Talk

Talked

Talked

Talking

Teach

Taught

Taught

Teaching

Tear

Tore

Torn

Tearing

Tell

Told

Told

Telling

Think

Thought

Thought

Thinking`

Walk

Walked

Walked

Walking

Write

Wrote

Written

Writing

 

Agreement of Verb with the Subject

इसका शाब्दिक अर्थ होता हैं – ‘कर्ता व क्रिया की अनुरूपता’। अर्थात् वाक्यों में कर्ता के अनुसार क्रिया का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Person

Present tense

Past tense

Future tense

1st Person

 

I

am

have

V-1st

do not

was

had

V-2nd

did not

 

shall

 

We

are

have

V-1st

do not

were

had

V-2nd

did not

 

shall

2nd Person

 

You

are

have

V-1st

do not

were

had

V-2nd

did not

 

will

3rd Person

He

and

Singular noun

is

has

V-1st (s / es)

does not

was

had

V-2nd

did not

 

will

 

She

is

has

V-1st (s / es)

does not

was

had

V-2nd

did not

 

will

 

It

is

has

V-1st (s / es)

does not

was

had

V-2nd

did not

 

will

They

And

Plural noun

are

have

V-1st

do not

were

had

V-2nd

did not

 

will

 

1.      एकवचन कर्ता के साथ एकवचन क्रिया तथा बहुवचन कर्ता के साथ बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Navendu is an innocent boy.

2.      They are innocent boys.

2.      यदि दो संज्ञा (noun) या सर्वनाम (pronoun) and से जुड़े हो तो उनके साथ बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Navendu and Jhankar are innocent boys.

2.      Ram and Rahim are good friends.

परन्तु यदि एक ही व्यक्ति या वस्तु के लिए प्रयोग में आये हो तो and से जुड़े होने पर भी एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      The controller and principle was there in the meeting. (both are same person)

2.      My brother and my guide are going with me. (both are different person)

3.      यदि दो noun परस्पर and से जुड़ कर एक ही भाव व्यक्त करे तो उनके साथ एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Milk and porridge is my favourite breakfast.

2.      Pen and paper is my daily life.

3.      Slow and steady wins the race.

4.      यदि दो कर्ता or, nor, either…or या neither ..nor से जुड़े हो तो क्रिया दूसरे वाले कर्ता के अनुसार प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Either Ram or Rahim has completed it.

2.      Navendu or his friends are taking part in cultural event.

5.      यदि कर्ता से पहले each, every, no one, none of, either of आदि हो तो एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं। तथा दो संज्ञाएँ each या every के साथ and से जुड़े हो तो भी एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Each boy is doing his work.

2.      None of the boys has solved this question.

3.      Each boy and each girl was given a banana.

6.      यदि बहुवचन संज्ञा के साथ एकचवन कर्ता प्रयोग में लाया जाये तो एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लेते हैं।

1.      Each of the brothers is honest.

2.      Neither of the students was sincere.

3.      The quantity of fruits is not much.

7.      यदि many के बाद एकवचन कर्ता हो तो एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लेते हैं, तथा many के बाद बहुवचन कर्ता हो तो बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लेते हैं

1.      Many boys were failed in math

2.      Many a boy was enjoying the picnic.

8.      यदि समूहवाचक (collective noun) किसी पूरे समूह का बोध कराये तो उसके साथ एकवचन क्रिया का प्रयोग होता हैं, और यदि समूह के विभिन्न सदस्यों का बोध कराये बहुवचन क्रिया का प्रयोग होता हैं।

1.      A herd of cattle is passing

2.      The committee was agreed on the matter.

3.      The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.

9.      कुछ संज्ञाएँ जो बहुवचन दिखती हैं, परन्तु एकवचन होती हैं, के साथ एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं। जैसे – News, Physics, wages, means, alms, assets, innings politics

1.      The news is true.

2.      Physics is difficult to read.

10. कुछ संज्ञाएँ जो एकवचन दिखती हैं, परन्तु बहुवचन होती हैं, के साथ बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं। जैसे – cattle, people, vermin, dozen, police

1.      Many people were killed in riot.

2.      The police have arrested the terrorist.

11. यदि दो कर्ता as well as, along with, with, together with, in addition to से जुड़े हो तो प्रथम कर्ता के अनुसार क्रिया का चयन किया जाता हैं।

1.      A lady along with her children is sitting there on the seat.

2.      You as well as Ramesh are going there.

12. यदि कर्ता none हो तो एकवचन या बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जा सकती।

1.      None is / are waiting for you

13.      वाक्य में संज्ञा के साथ most के प्रयोग के आधार पर क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं। यदि वस्तु का अधिकांश भाग most द्वारा दर्शाया जाये तो क्रिया एकवचन तथा most द्वारा कई वस्तुओं का बोध हो तो क्रिया बहुवचन प्रयोग में लाई जाती ।

1.      Most of the area has been covered by Indian army.

2.      Most of the students have completed their homework.

14.      It के साथ प्रायः एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      It is very funny.

2.      It is Ram who is my friend.

15.      वाक्य में there के प्रयोग के आधार पर क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं। यदि there का प्रयोग एक वस्तु के लिए हुआ हो तो क्रिया एकवचन तथा there का प्रयोग कई वस्तुओं के लिए किया गया हो तो बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती ।

1.      There is no good law college in my town.

2.      There are a large number of spectators in the stadium.

16.      Nothing but के बाद आने वाली संज्ञा चाहे एकवचन हो चाहे बहुवचन, उसके बाद हमेशा एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Nothing but players was seen there.

2.      Nothing but flowers is grown there.

17.      जब किसी बहुवचन संज्ञा का प्रयोग समूहवाचक के रूप में होता हो तो उसके बाद में एकवचन क्रिया पफयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Two kilometers is not a big distance.

2.       Hundred rupees is only I want for this.

18.      A pair of, a couple of, a group of, a bunch of, a fleet of, a flock of के बाद बहुवचन संज्ञा प्रयोग में ली जाती हैं, परन्तु क्रिया एकवचन प्रयोग में लेते हैं।

1.      This pair of shoes is durable for me.

2.      A bunch of flowers was given to me.

19.      Noun phrase तथा noun clause के साथ एकवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      What you told is not good for you.

2.      To take a morning walk is good habit.

20.      a number of, a lot of, a great deal of, plenty of, both of ,several के बाद बहुवचन क्रिया प्रयोग में लाई जाती हैं।

1.      Lots of people were killed in riot.