Narration

(प्रत्यक्ष-अप्रत्यक्ष कथन)

There are two type of narration-

1.      Direct narration: In direct narration, the exact words of the speaker are quoted.

जब किसी कथन को वक्ता के शब्दों में अक्षरश: कहा जाए तो इसे Direct narration कहते हैं।

2.      Indirect narration: In indirect narration, the sense of the words used by the first speaker is reported.

जब वक्ता के क‍थन को श्रोता अपने शब्दों में कहे तो इसे Indirect narration कहते हैं।

 

Mahendra says to me,

“I am well now.”

______________

_______________

(reported verb)

(Reported speech)

1.    Reported verb के person के अनुसार reported speech के person को बदलते हैं।

2.    Reported verb की क्रिया के अनुसार reported speech की verb को बदलते हैं।

3.    Reported verb के person तथा tense में कोई परिवर्तन नही किया जाता, ये यथावत् रहते हैं।

4.    Direct speech को indirect में बदलते समय comma inverted comma हटाकर उपयुक्त connective (that, if  या Question word) लगाते हैं।

5.    Reporting verb की क्रिया को निम्न प्रकार से बदलते हैं।

1.    यदि said to के बाद में object हो तो उसे told में बदल देते हैं।

2.    यदि said to के बाद में  object नही हो तो उसे said ही रहने देते हैं।

Reported verb को निम्न pattern में लिखा जाता हैं।

 

Subject

+

Verb

+

object

 

 

(1) Assertive sentences

Direct speech को indirect speech में बदलते समय Reported speech में निम्न परिवर्तन करते हैं।

Change in Pronoun:

1.    Reported speech के  1st person  subject तथा pronoun को Reporting verb के subject  के अनुसार परिवर्तित किया जाता हैं।

2.    Reported speech के 2nd person subject तथा pronoun को Reporting verb के object के अनुसार परिवर्तित किया जाता हैं।

3.    Reported speech के 3rd person  subject तथा pronoun को परिवर्तित नही किया जाता हैं।

Change in Time & distance: Direct narration में निकट का अर्थ देने वाले शब्दों को निम्न प्रकार से indirect narration में दूर का अर्थ देने वाले शब्दों में परिवर्तित करते हैं।

 

Direct में

 

Indirect में

This

-

That

These

-

Those

Here

-

There

Now

-

Then

Ago

-

Before

Today

-

That day

Tonight

-

That night

Tomorrow

-

The next day / The following day

Yesterday

-

The day before / The previous day

Now a day

-

Those day

These day

-

Those day

Just

-

Then

Last night

-

The previous night

Next week

-

The following week

Change in Verb: Reported speech की क्रिया को reported verb की क्रिया के अनुसार निम्न प्रकार से परिवर्तित किया जाता हैं।

1.    यदि reported verb की क्रिया  Present tense (say or says)  या Future tense (will say or shall say) की हो तो  reported speech के  tense में कोई परिवर्तन नही किया जाता हैं।

Example:

1.    Mahendra says to me, “I am well.”                                       (Direct)

Mahendra tells me that he is well.                                       (Indirect)       

2.    He will say to me, “I gave him a book.”                               (Direct)

He will tell me that he gave him a book.                             (Indirect)

2.    यदि reported verb की क्रिया Past tense (said) की हो तथा reported speech की क्रिया Present tense  की हो तो indirect speech में बदलते समय reported speech की क्रिया को भी past tense में निम्न प्रकार से परिवर्तित करते हैं।

 

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

Present indefinite

-

Past indefinite

Present continuous

-

Past continuous

Present perfect

-

Past perfect

Present perfect continuous

-

Past perfect continuous

तथा सहायक क्रियाओं में भी निम्न प्रकार से परिवर्तन करते हैं।

 

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

Is/are/am

-

Was/were

Do/does

-

Did

Has/have

-

Had

Shall/will

-

Should/would

May

-

Might

Can

-

could

Example:

1.    Mahendra said to me, “I have just posted the letter.”        (Direct)

Mahendra told me that he had then posted the letter.     (Indirect)       

3.    यदि reported verb की क्रिया Past tense (said) की हो तथा reported speech की क्रिया भी Past tense की हो तो indirect speech में बदलते समय reported speech ‍की क्रिया को  past perfect tense में निम्न प्रकार से परिवर्तित करते हैं।

 

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

Was/were

-

Had been

Did+V-1st/ V-2nd

-

Had+V-3rd

Example:

1.    Ram said to me, “I was late yesterday.”                               (Direct)

Ram told me that he had been late the day before.         (Indirect)

4.    यदि reported verb  की क्रिया Past tense (said)  की हो तथा reported speech की क्रिया (must, had, could, would, should या might) हो तो indirect speech में बदलते समय reported speech की क्रिया में कोई परिवर्तन नही करते हैं।

Example:

1.    Ram said to me, “I must help you in your work.”               (Direct)

Ram told me that he must help me in my work.               (Indirect)       

5.    यदि reported verb की क्रिया Past tense की हो तथा reported speechमें-

(1) Universal truth (शाश्वत सत्य)

(2) Idiom/saying/proverb (कहावत/मुहावरें)

(3) Historical event (ऐतिहासिक तथ्य)

(4) Scientific fact (वैज्ञानिक तथ्य) आ जाए तो indirect speech में बदलते समय reported speech की क्रिया में कोई परिवर्तन नही किया जाता हैं।

Example:

1.    Ram said to me, “The sun rises in the east.”                     (Direct)

Ram told me that the sun rises in the east.                       (Indirect)

2.    He said, “Birds fly in the sky.”                                               (Direct)

He said that birds fly in the sky.                                            (Indirect)

 

 (1) Interrogative sentences

 

(a) Reported speech starts with “helping verb”)

1.    Change in reported verb-

 

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

Says to

-

Asks

Say to

-

Ask

Will/shall say to

-

Will/shall ask

Said to

-

Asked

2.    comma तथा inverted comma हटाकर connective (if / whether) लगाते हैं।

3.    helping verb तथा person का स्थान परस्पर परिवर्तित कर देते हैं।

4.    Question mark हटाकर full stop लगा देते हैं।

Example:

1.    Ram said to me, “Do you walk on foot?”                            (Direct)

Ram asked me if I walked on the foot.                                (Indirect)

2.    Hari said to me, “can I see your pencil?”                            (Direct)

Hari asked me whether he could see my pencil.              (Indirect)

     

 (b) Reported speech starts with “question word”)

1.    Change in reported verb-

 

Direct speech

 

Indirect speech

Says to

-

Asks

Say to

-

Ask

Will/shall say to

-

Will/shall ask

Said to

-

Asked

2.    comma तथा inverted comma हटाकर प्रश्नवाचक शब्द को ज्यों का त्यों reported speech में  connective के रूप में लगा देते हैं।

3.    helping verb तथा person का स्थान परस्पर परिवर्तित कर देते हैं।

4.    Question mark हटाकर full stop लगा देते हैं।

Example:

1.    Ram said to me, “Why are you not working hard?”          (Direct)

Ram asked me why I was not working hard.                     (Indirect)

2.    He said to her,” what are you looking for?”                        (Direct)

He asked her what she was looking for.                             (Indirect)

 

(2) Imperative sentences

Reported speech का वाक्य निम्न में से किसी एक प्रकार से प्रारम्भ हो सकता हैं -

1.    क्रिया की 1st form से

2.    Do not से

3.    Please या  Kindly से

1.    Reported verb को reported speech के भावार्थ के अनुसार निम्न प्रकार से लिखते हैं।

आज्ञा देना

-

Ordered

हुक्म देना

-

Commanded

विनती या निवेदन करना

-

Requested

सलाह देना

-

Advised

सुझाव देना

-

Suggested

प्रस्ताव देना

-

Proposed

मना करना

-

Forbade

भीख मांगना

-

Begged

चेतावनी देना

-

Beseeched

2.    comma तथा inverted comma हटाकर that नही लगाकर to लगाते हैं। केवल सुझाव देने वाले वाक्यों में that लगाते हैं।

3.    Negative sentences में Do not हटाकर  Not to  लगाते हैं। परन्तु यदि Reported verb को Forbade लिखते हैं तो Do not हटाकर Not to नही लगाकर to लगाते हैं। to हमेशा क्रिया की 1st form के पहले प्रयोग में लिया जाता हैं।

4.    reported speech यदि Please  या  Kindly से प्रारम्भ हो तो उसे हटा देते हैं तथा  Reported verb को Requested कर देते हैं।

5.    reported speech यदि sir  शब्द आए तो उसे हटाकर Reported verb में object  के बाद में Respectfully जोड़ देते हैं।

Example:

1.    Ram said to me, “Do not run on the road.”                         (Direct)

Ram forbade me to run on the road.                                   (Indirect)

2.    The teacher said to me, “Do not make a noise.”               (Direct)

The teacher ordered me not to make a noise.                   (Indirect)

3.    Pushpa said to me, “Listen to me”                                       (Direct)

Pushpa asked me to listen to her.                                       (Indirect)

4.    Pravin said to them, “Please keep quite”                            (Direct)

Pravin requested them to keep quite”.                                (Indirect)

5.    Ram said to the teacher, “Sir, mark me present”               (Direct)

Ram requested the teacher respectfully to mark him present.   (Indirect)

 

(3) Reported verb starting with “Let”

1.      Let के बाद यदि us आए तो प्रस्ताव या सुझाव का बोध होता हैं। इन वाक्यों को indirect speech में बदलते समय reported verb को proposed या suggested में बदल देते हैं तथा connective के बाद में that लगाकर let us को They should या We should  में बदल देते हैं।

2.      Let के बाद यदि दूसरा object आए तो इन वाक्यों को  indirect speech में बदलते समय reported verb को requested में बदल देते हैं तथा connective के बाद to लगा देते हैं।

Example:

1.      Ram said to me, “Let’s go there”                                          (Direct)

Ram proposed me that we should go there.                      (Indirect)

2.      Hari said to Ram, “Let’s stop the work”                               (Direct)

Hari suggested ram they should stop the work.                (Indirect)

3.      He said to me, “Let him do his work”                                   (Direct)

He requested me to let him do his work.                            (Indirect)

 

(4) Exclamatory sentence

1.    Reported speech में दिये गये विस्मयादिबोधक शब्द के अनुसार Reporting verb को निम्न प्रकार से बदलते हैं।

Hurrah! (हर्ष)

Exclaimed with joy / happiness / delight / pleasure

Alas! (शोक)

Exclaimed with regret /sorrow / grief

Pooh! , Fie! , fo! , fum! (घृणा)

Exclaimed with hatred / scorn / despise / disgust

Oh! (आश्चर्य)

Exclaimed with wonder / surprise / astonishment

2.    Connective  के रूप में  that का प्रयोग कर विस्मयादिबोधक शब्द तथा चिन्ह हटा देते हैं।

Example:

1.      Ram said, “Hurrah! I have scored two goals.”                    (Direct)

Ram exclaimed with joy that he had scored two goals.   (Indirect)

2.      Hari said, “Alas! Ram is dead”                                              (Direct)

Hari exclaimed with sorrow that Ram was dead.              (Indirect)

3.      He said, “Alas! I am undone.”                                               (Direct)

He exclaimed with sorrow that he was undone.               (Indirect)

3.    Reported speech मे Bravo! (शाबाशी) शब्द का प्रयोग किया गया हो तो Reporting verb को applauded में बदलकर निम्न प्रकार से indirect speech बनाते हैं।

Example:

1.      Ram says, “Bravo! Well played Ravi.”                                 (Direct)

Ram applauded Ravi saying that he played well.            (Indirect)

2.      Hari said, “Bravo! You have done well”                              (Direct)

Hari applauded him saying that he had done well.         (Indirect)

4.    What या How से प्रारम्भ होने वाले विस्मयादिबोधक वाक्यों में reporting verb को exclaimed with surprise / wonder में बदलकर what या how शब्द हटा देते हैं।कर्ता तथा क्रिया का स्थान परस्पर बदल कर adjective से पहले very, great, big, extremely शब्द लगाकर indirect speech बनाते हैं।

Example:

1.      Ram said, “What a good player he is!”                                (Direct)

Ram exclaimed with surprise that he was a good player. (Indirect)

2.      Hari said to her, “What a beautiful flower!”                         (Direct)

Hari exclaimed with wonder that it was a beautiful flower. (Indirect)

 

(5) Optative sentence

A sentence which shows a wish (कामना), a blessing (आशीर्वाद) or a curse (अभिशाप) is known as optative sentence.

कामनासूचक वाक्य प्राय: “May” से प्रारम्भ होते हैं।

1.    Reported verb को भाव के अनुसार निम्न प्रकार से बदलते हैं -

 

कामना करना

-

Wished

प्रार्थना करना

-

Prayer

आशीर्वाद देना

-

Blessed

अभिशाप देना

-

Cursed

2.    May +V-1st को Might +V-1st  में बदल कर that से जोड़ देते हैं।

Example:

1.      My mother said to me, “May you live long!.”                       (Direct)

My mother wished me that I might live long.                     (Indirect)

My mother blessed me with long life.                                 (Indirect)

2.      She said, “May you go to hell!”                                             (Direct)

She cursed that he might go to hell.                                   (Indirect)

 

(6) Other cases

1.    यदि reported speech में अभिवादन सूचक शब्द आ जाए तो उन्हें निम्न प्रकार से  indirect narration में बदलते हैं।

1.      He said to me, “Good morning.”                                           (Direct)

He bade me good morning.                                                  (Indirect)

He wished me good morning.                                              (Indirect)

2.      He said to me, “Hello! Where are you going?”                  (Direct)

He greeted me and asked where I was going.                  (Indirect)

2.    यदि reported speech में किसी को सम्बोधित किया जाए तो उन्हें निम्न प्रकार से  indirect narration में बदलते हैं।

1.      He said to me, “Friend, Where are you going?”                (Direct)

He addressed me as a friend and asked where I was going. (Indirect)

Addressing me as his friend, he asked where I was going. (Indirect)

2.      He said, “Ram, Where are you going?”                              (Direct)

He asked Ram where he was going.                                  (Indirect)