Active and Passive Voice

(कर्तृ तथा कर्म वाच्य)

There are two types of voices in English.

  1. Active voice
  2. Passive voice

1.    Active voice (कर्तृ वाच्य): Active का शाब्दिक अर्थ होता हैं सक्रिय होना।

      जब वाक्य में कर्ता (subject)  स्वयं सक्रिय होता हैं, अर्थात् जब कर्ता स्वयं कार्य करता हैं तो यह Active voice कहलाता हैं।

            Jhankar eats the food.

उपरोक्त वाक्य में भोजन करने में स्वयं subject सक्रिय हैं, अर्थात् ‘‘झंकार स्वयं भोजन कर रहा हैं तो यह Active voice का वाक्य हैं।

2.    Passive voice (कर्म वाच्य): Passive का शाब्दिक अर्थ होता हैं - निष्क्रिय होना।

      जब वाक्य में कर्ता (subject)  स्वयं निष्क्रिय होता हैं तथा verb के अनुसार कार्य किया जाता हैं तो यह Passive voice का वाक्य कहलाता हैं।

            The food is eaten by Jhankar.

 

Forms of personal pronoun

 

Person

Nominative(Subject)

Accusative

(Object)

Possessive

(possession)

1st person

I

Me

My, Mine

We

Us

Our, Ours

2nd person

Thou

Thee

Thy, Thine

You

You

Your, Yours

3rd person

He

Him

His

She

Her

Her, Hers

It

It

Its

They

Them

Their, Theirs

Who

Whom

Whose

 

Example:

1.      The peon rings the first bell at 10 O’clock.                                     (Active)

The first bell is rung at 10 O’clock.                                                   (Passive)

2.      My father teaches me English.                                                        (Active)

I am taught English by my father.                                                    (Passive)

·         In the active voice, the subject of the verb is the person or thing that does the action. In the passive voice, the action is done to the subject.

कर्तृ वाच्य में कर्ता कोई क्रिया करता हैं, जबकि कर्म वाच्य में कर्ता निष्क्रिय रहता हैं।

·         Passive voices in English indicate the shift of interest from the doer (subject) of the action to the object of the action.

कर्म वाच्यों में क्रिया के कर्ता के बजाय कर्म पर अधिक जोर दिया जाता हैं।

·         The object of the Transitive verb in the Active voice becomes the subject of the verb in Passive voice.

कर्तृ वाच्य में सकर्मक क्रिया का कर्म, कर्म वाच्य में क्रिया का कर्ता बन जाता हैं।

·         The passive voice are formed with a suitable form of be+V-3rd. Only Transitive verbs (verb which take an object) can be used in passive voice.

सहायक क्रिया be की उचित form तथा V-3rd का प्रयोग कर कर्म वाच्य बनाये जाते हैं। कर्म वाच्य में केवल सकर्मक क्रिया का ही प्रयोग करते हैं।

Active voice को Passive voice में बदलते समय निम्न क्रम ध्यान में रखते हैं -

·         सबसे पहले वाक्य के Object को Subject में बदल कर लिखते हैं।

·         Subject के तुरन्त बाद में कर्ता के अनुसार helping verb लिखते हैं।

·         Verb की 3rd form लगाते हैं।

·         यदि आवश्यक हो  by लगाते हैं।

·         अन्त में Subject को Object बना कर लिख देते हैं।

 

Pattern of passive voice:

 

Object

(Subject के रुप में)

+

helping verb

 (Suitable form of “be”)

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

(Object के रुप में)

           

(1) Pattern of Passive voice (Present tense)

 

1.      Present Indefinite Tense

 

Object

+

Is / are / am

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram eats the food.

The food is eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram does not eat the food.

The food is not eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Does Ram eat the food?

Is the food eaten by Ram?

Why does Ram eat the food?

Why is the food eaten by Ram?

 

2.      Present Continuous Tense

 

Object

+

Is / are / am

+

being

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram is eating the food.

The food is being eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram is not eating the food.

The food is not being eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Is Ram eating the food?

Is the food being eaten by Ram?

Why is Ram eating the food?

Why is the food being eaten by Ram?

 

3.      Present Perfect Tense

 

Object

+

Has / have

+

been

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram has eaten the food.

The food has been eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram has not eaten the food.

The food has not been eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Has Ram eaten the food?

Has the food been eaten by Ram?

Why has Ram eaten the food?

Why has the food been eaten by Ram?

 

(2) Pattern of Passive voice (Past tense)

 

4.      Past Indefinite Tense

 

Object

+

Was / were

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram ate the food.

The food was eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram did not eat the food.

The food was not eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Did Ram eat the food?

Was the food eaten by Ram?

Why did Ram eat the food?

Why was the food eaten by Ram?

 

5.      Past Continuous Tense

 

Object

+

Was / were

+

being

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram was eating the food.

The food was being eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram was not eating the food.

The food was not being eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Was Ram eating the food?

Was the food being eaten by Ram?

Why was Ram eating the food?

Why was the food being eaten by Ram?

 

6.      Past Perfect Tense

 

Object

+

had

+

been

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram had eaten the food.

The food had been eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram had not eaten the food.

The food had not been eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Had Ram eaten the food?

Had the food been eaten by Ram?

Why had Ram eaten the food?

Why had the food been eaten by Ram?

 

(3) Pattern of Passive voice (Future tense)

 

7.      Future Indefinite Tense

 

Object

+

Will / shall

+

be

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram will eat the food.

The food will be eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram will not eat the food.

The food will not be eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Will Ram eat the food?

Will the food be eaten by Ram?

Why will Ram eat the food?

Why will the food be eaten by Ram?

 

8.      Future Perfect Tense

 

Object

+

will have /

shall have

+

been

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

 

Active voice

Passive voice

Assertive

Ram will have eaten the food.

The food will have been eaten by Ram.

Negative

Ram will not have eaten the food.

The food will not have been eaten by Ram.

Interrogative

Will Ram have eaten the food?

Will the food have been eaten by Ram?

Why will Ram have eaten the food?

Why will the food have been eaten by Ram?

 

(4) Pattern of Passive voice (Modal Auxiliaries)

 

Must, Can, Could, Shall, Should, Will, Would, May, Might, Ought to, Need not आदि Modal के बाद में Passive voice में helping verb हमेशा be का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Object

+

modal

+

be

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

 

Example:

1.      You must write a letter.                                                                      (Active)

A letter must be written by you.                                                        (Passive)

2.      You must not touch the switch.                                                       (Active)

The switch must not be touched by you.                                      (Passive)

 

Would have के साथ Passive voice में हमेशा been का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Example:

3.      He would have done it.                                                                      (Active)

It would have been done by him.                                                    (Passive)

 

(5) Pattern of Passive voice (“To” Infinitive, क्रिया से पहले to)

 

Object

+

helping verb

+

to be

+

V-3rd

+

by

+

Subject.

Tense तथा object के अनुसार helping verb का प्रयोग करते हैं।

1.      She is to cook the food.                                                                     (Active)

The food is to be cooked by her.                                                      (Passive)

 

(6) Pattern of Passive voice (Imperative sentences)

 

Imperative sentences (आज्ञा या प्रार्थना-सूचक वाक्य) निम्न प्रकार से प्रारम्भ होते हैं।

 

1.      Starting with 1st form of the verb:

 

Imperative sentences का Passive voice “Let” से प्रारम्भ होता हैं तथा helping verb “be” का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

Assertive sentences:

 

Let

+

object

+

be

+

V-3rd

Negative sentences:

 

Let

+

object

+

not be

+

V-3rd

 

Example:

1.      Stop the work.                                                                                      (Active)

Let the work be stopped.                                                                    (Passive)

2.      Don’t stop the work.                                                                            (Active)

Let the work not be stopped.                                                             (Passive)

 

2.      Starting with “Let”:

 

Let

+

object

+

 be

+

V-3rd

+

By

+

subject

 

Example:

1.      Let him do it.                                                                                        (Active)

Let it be done by him                                                                          (Passive)

2.      Let me try this question.                                                                    (Active)

Let this question be tried by me.                                                      (Passive)

 

3.      Imperative sentences without object (Intransitive verb):

 

Imperative sentence के वाक्यों को उनके भावार्थ देने वाली क्रिया का प्रयोग कर Passive voice बनाया जाता हैं।

 

You are

+

भावार्थ देने वाली क्रिया की 3rd form

+

 to

+

Active voice का वाक्य ज्यों का त्यों

भावार्थ देने वाली क्रियाए निम्न हैं -

आज्ञा देना

-

Ordered

हुक्म देना

-

Commanded

विनती करना

-

Requested

सलाह देना

-

Advised

सुझाव देना

-

Suggested

प्रस्ताव देना

-

Proposed

मना करना

-

Forbidden

भीख मांगना

-

Begged

चेतावनी देना

-

Beseeched

 

Example:

1.      Please keep quite.                                                                              (Active)

You are requested to keep quite.                                                     (Passive)

2.      Take milk and fruit daily.                                                                    (Active)

You are advised to take milk and fruit daily.                                   (Passive)

3.      Work hard.                                                                                            (Active)

You are advised to work hard.                                                          (Passive)

 

1.      Imperative sentences के वाक्यों को उनके भावर्थ के अनुसार Modals का प्रयोग कर भी  passive बनाया जाता हैं:

 

Example:

1.      Help the needy.                                                                                   (Active)

The needy should be helped.                                                          (Passive)

 

(7) Pattern of Passive voice (starting with “who or which”)

 

1.      Sentences starting with “Who”:

 

 

By whom

 

+

Is / are / am

Or

Was / were

 

+

 

object

 

+

 

V-3rd

 

Example:

1.      Who gave him a book?                                                                      (Active)

By whom was he given a book?                                                      (Passive)

     

2.      Sentences starting with “which”:

 

 

By which

 

+

given noun

 

+

Is / are / am

Or

Was / were

 

+

 

object

 

+

 

V-3rd

 

Example:

1.      Which boy was telling a story?                                                         (Active)

By which boy was a story being told?                                             (Passive)

 

(8) Pattern of Passive voice (with “Unimportant subject”)

 

Active voice के वाक्यों में subject के रुप में somebody, someone, everyone, everybody, all of them या the people आ जाए तो passive voice बनाते समय उन्हें लिखा या बोला नही जाता।

 

Object

+

Helping verb

+

V-3rd

 

Example:

1.      Some one posted the letter.                                                              (Active)

The letter was posted.                                                                        (Passive)

2.      People take the tea in the morning.                                                (Active)

Tea is taken in the morning.                                                             (Passive)

3.      Someone is waiting for you in the room.                                       (Active)

You are being waited in the room.                                                   (Passive)

4.      Many people take tea in tea evening.                                             (Active)

Tea is taken by many people in the morning.                                (Passive)

Many people, some people are important subjects.

 

 (9) Pattern of Passive voice (--going to--)

 

 

Object

 

+

Is / are / am

Or

Was / were

 

+

Going to be

 

+

 

V-3rd

 

+

 

by

 

+

 

Subject.

 

Example:

1.      We are going to win the match.                                                       (Active)

The match is going to be won by us.                                              (Passive)

2.      We are going to play the football.                                                    (Active)

The football is going to be played by us.                                        (Passive)

 

(10) Pattern of Passive voice (Object followed by “Any”)

 

Active voice के वाक्यों में object के पूर्व यदि any आ जाए तो any को no में बदल दिया जाता हैं। passive voice के वाक्यों में not नही लगाते हैं।

 

Example:

1.      He does not buy any thing.                                                               (Active)

No thing is bought by him.                                                                (Passive)

 

(11) Pattern of Passive voice (without object & with that clause)

 

Active voice के वाक्य जिनमे object नही हो तथा that clause आया हो तो that से पूर्व आने वाली क्रिया के अनुसार passive voice बनाते हैं।

 

It

+

Is / Was / will be

+

V-3rd

+

that clause

 

Example:

1.      They hope that it will rain.                                                                 (Active)

It is hopped that it will rain.                                                                (Passive)      

2.      People say that health is wealth.                                                     (Active)

It is said that health is wealth.                                                          (Passive)

3.      Nobody knows that how vast the space is.                                    (Active)

It is not known that how vast the space is.                                     (Passive)

 

(12) Pattern of Passive voice (special cases)

 

Passive voice बनाते समय कुछ verb के बाद निश्चित रूप से Preposition का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

1.    At- Astonished (चकित किया), Surprised (चकित किया), Alarmed (चकित किया), Shocked (चकित किया) के बाद At का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Example:

1.      The news shocked me.                                                                     (Active)

I was shocked at the news.                                                               (Passive)      

2.      His victory astonished us.                                                                 (Active)

We are astonished at his victory.                                                     (Passive)

2.    WithTired (थका दिया), Satisfied (संतुष्टी), Charmed (आकर्षित किया), Disgusted (अप्रसन्न किया) के बाद With का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Example:

1.      The long journey tired me.                                                                (Active)

I was tired with long journey.                                                            (Passive)      

2.      Your service satisfies me.                                                                 (Active)

I am satisfied with your service.                                                       (Passive)

Note: Pleased / Displeased के बाद भावार्थ के अनुसार with या at का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Example:

1.      He pleased them.                                                                               (Active)

They were pleased with them.                                                         (Passive)      

2.      Your wit pleased him.                                                                        (Active)

He was pleased at your wit.                                                              (Passive)

3.    In Interested के बाद In का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Example:

1.      Poetry interests me.                                                                            (Active)

I am interested in poetry.                                                                   (Passive)      

4.    To Known के बाद To का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

 

Example:

1.      He knows me.                                                                                     (Active)

I am known to him.                                                                             (Passive)